Its greater production in Bulgaria has been suggested (Hadjinikolova et al., 2010). It swims slowly, waving the long anal fin that garnishes its body from the abdomen to the tail, but is able to make sudden leaps when disturbed by an annoying diver or if it must seize a prey. The other “accessories” are proportionally tiny: two pectoral fins little worth of the size of the fish, two small pelvic fins and a sort dorsal, at times erect to serve as pivot for a turn. Krmiva, 37(3), 129-134. GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. This species requires temperatures of 25-28ºC for optimal growth, food assimilation and breeding (Copp et al., 2009). They can be identified by 6 barbels, 2 long ones on each side of the mouth and 4 shorter ones from the lower jaw. Habitat use follows a daily pattern, and incorporates territorial behaviour. Their paired pelvic fins are each made up of one spine and 11-12 soft rays and have paired pectoral fins of one spine and 14-17 soft rays. It fathoms every fissure and hideout among the weeds with its long upper barbels that, like blind sticks, swings for exploring the whereabouts. There are 18 Silurus species, of which two are native to Europe: wels catfish and Aristotle's catfish (S. aristotelis). Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria, 26(1), 93-101. A review of the environmental biology of European catfish Silurus glanis in its native and introduced ranges. Kafkas Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, 18(5), 775-780. http://vetdergi.kafkas.edu.tr/extdocs/2012_5/775-780.pdf, Clavero M, García-Berthou E, 2006. 2009; Syväranta et al. Harka, A, 1984. Výzkumný Ústav Rybárský a Hydrobiologický Vodnany, 29:3-9. Ecological Applications, 16(6):2313-2324. http://www.esajournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.1890%2F1051-0761%282006%29016%5B2313%3AHDAIRO%5D2.0.CO%3B2, Copp GH, Britton JR, Cucherousset J, García-Berthou E, Kirk R, Peeler E, Stakenas S, 2009. 2009; Copp et al. Density-dependent and inter-specific interactions affecting European eel settlement in freshwater habitats. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. In an initial invasiveness assessment, Copp et al. A “do nothing” approach is advocated in low risk situations, whereas removal or containment are considered options in higher risk situations. S. glanis is in the lower range of the high risk score of FISK, although these scores are variable and likely to change in relation to the context of environmental factors affecting risk (Copp et al., 2005). Aquacultura Hungarica, 4: 135-144. Évolution de son aire de répartition et prédiction de son extension ([English title not available]). → For general information about fishes please click here. Investigation on growth rate and food conversion ratio of wels (Silurus glanis L.) in controlled conditions. Aquaculture: a biotechnology in progress: volume 1. International Conference: Aquaculture Europe, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2-5 Jun 1987. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0050840 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050840, Czarnecki, M., Andrzejewski, W., Mastynski, J., 2012. 2007; Carol et al. Presence of Silurus glanis Linnaeus, 1758, in the Volturno Basin. https://wcd.coe.int/com.instranet.InstraServlet?command=com.instranet.CmdBlobGet&InstranetImage=1338217&SecMode=1&DocId=1464096&Usage=2, FAO, 2012. 2010), and spawning behaviour was also temperature sensitive -- spawning was delayed for months until water temperatures were within the 18-23ºC range (Wiśniewolski, 1989; Copp et al. After the fecundation they will defend them and will aerate them from time to time until the hatching. Each gram of ova has about 195 eggs prior to spawning. The name of the genus comes from the Latin “silurus” that means torpedo indicating the big freshwater fish. Species. The influence of temperature on the growth of the European catfish (Silurus glanis). According to Linhart et al. Hydrobiologia, 671:259-265. http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/1573-5117/, Boeseman M, 1975. Effects of the dietary protein and lipid levels on growth and body composition of bagrid catfish, Pseudobagrus fulvidraco. Le Mamme del Chiese si costituiscono ufficialmente in “comitato” Territorio. Aquaculture, 243(1/4), 323-329. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00448486, Kinzelbach R, 1992. Turk Veterinerlik ve Hayvancilik Dergisi, 28:613-622, Alp, A., Kara, C., Üçkardes, F., Carol, J., García-Berthou, E., 2011. While growing in size, also the dimensions of the preys increase. The breed effect on productivity and meat nutrient compsition of fish. Technological research for artificial reproduction, population genetics and conservation problems have been developed over the past 10 years in the Czech Republic, France and other European countries. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum - Piscaria, 2(1), 183-194. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Spawning is nocturnal. It appears to establish relatively easily after introduction, especially in warmer climates such as around the Mediterranean (Crivelli, 1995). Upstream spring migration in April for spawning requires temperatures of 8-10ºC and initiation of spawning occurs at 18-22ºC. Mouth is large and broad with very small, pointed teeth. Status Review Report of 5 Species of Foreign Sturgeon. Risk identification and assessment of non-native freshwater fishes: concepts and perspectives on protocols for the UK. Fish and Fisheries, 10(3):252-282. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/faf, Copp GH, Garthwaite R, Gozlan RE, 2005. Wels catfish (Silurus glanis); adult fish, captured in the Syr Darya, a river in Central Asia. Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. AACL Bioflux, 3(5), 362-366. http://www.bioflux.com.ro/aacl, National Marine Fisheries Service, 2013. Siluro mostro in vertical con fireball. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 4(6), 841-846. Pesci siluro nel Garda, l’allarme dei pescatori . Larval and juvenile stages of introduced fish are most susceptible to predation due to small size (Gozlan et al. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 14:263-268, Britton, J. R., Davies, G. D., Brazier, M., 2010. Comparison of morphology, growth and survival between Silurus glanis, S. aristotelis and their hybrid during larval and juvenile stages. Testicles in males are a pair of glands in the dorsal main cavity, white when mature, but pink when developing (Shikhshabekov, 1978). S. glanis has a broad omnivorous diet, including invertebrates and vertebrates such as small rodents. 60:21-36. > 0°C, dry winters), CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered), Competition - monopolizing resources; Predation, CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species, DIAS, Database on Introductions of Aquatic Species. In the UK, the government has developed an environmental risk strategy including risk identification, risk assessment, risk management and risk review and reporting. There is considerable research on growth of S. glanis in aquaculture (Harka, 1984; Hilge, 1984, 1985; Mareš et al. I SILURI DEL DELTA DEL PO A cura di Antonio Dimer Manzolli n.9 . Cornol, Switzerland: Publications Kottelat, 646 pp, Krieg F, Estoup A, Triantafyllidis A, Guyomard R, 1999. Biological Conservation, 72:311-319, Cucherousset, J., Boulêtreau, S., Azémar, F., Compin, A., Guillaume, M., Santoul, F., 2012. The colour is dark grey on the back and goes down on the sides with a moire where clear and dark colours mix irregularly, to end in an opaque white belly. Bangkok, Thailand and Rome, Italy: Network of Aquaculture Centres in AsiaPacific and FAO, Bangkok & FAO Rome, 397-416. https://enaca.org/?id=413, Vittas S, Drosopoulou E, Kappas I, Pantzartzi CN, Scouras ZG, 2011. Males have running milt 30-40 days before spawning and produce sperm for relatively long periods, with a gradual, extended duration of spermatozoa discharge (Shikhshabekov, 1978). Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list. Proliferation has been assisted by unregulated introductions in many countries (Hickley and Chare, 2004; Clavero and Garcia-Berthou, 2006). This albino young seems to smile affable. (2003) reported that more than 50% of successful invasive fish species introduced into the UK exhibit parental care, where fish actively protect and guard their eggs or larvae and defend territories. (2011) reported that in the Camargue in Southern France, S. glanis consumption was not a threat to eel distribution, as their diet was mainly omnivorous. Establishment may be more sporadic in northern countries such as Belgium and the UK where temperatures are less favourable (Elvira, 2001; Britton and Pegg, 2007). 2012). Slimy monster without scales with 2 measureless barbels near the eyes and others on the chin completing the range of the sensors © Giuseppe Mazza. However, consideration must be given to the economic costs that are likely to arise from management control policies with the removal of S. glanis from unlicensed waters; monitoring, removal costs and challenges in recapturing demersal species. Aquaculture Research, 35(1), 97-99. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2109.2004.00983.x/abs/ doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2109.2004.00983.x, Penil C, 2004. The introduction of S. glanis in angling clubs is likely to increase revenue to local communities and generate business. Fischokologie, 6:7-20, Kottelat M, Freyhof J, 2007. Reviewers' names are available on request. Of presumable Danubian origin, this fish has diffused in almost all European rivers and lakes, often introduced by the man, as well as in the Caspian and Lake Aral basins, colonizing also the Anatolia, the southern part of the Baltic countries, and even areas of Great Britain and of Spain. Although the genetic structure and phylogeography have been studied in its native range, there is little information known about the genetic characteristics of S. glanis in its introduced range (Copp et al., 2009). Ulikowski, D., Szczepkowski, M., Szczepkowska, B., 2003. Sperm cryopreservation of two European predator fish species, the Pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) and the Wels Catfish (Silurus glanis). Movement to new areas is generally through introduction for aquaculture and recreational fishing, or sometimes for biological control. Our inland waters have very impoverished and this dearth by sure is not favouring important dimensions. 10 (3), 252-282. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/faf DOI:10.1111/j.1467-2979.2008.00321.x, Froese R, Pauly D, 2012. 2009; Rees, 2010; Hickley and Chare, 2004). 2001). S. glanis is cited as present in some rivers in the UK, e.g. 2010). (Ucinkovitost dodatka polizyma na rast somovskog mlada (Silurus glanis) u kaveznom uzgoju). Assessing the effects of climate change on aquatic invasive species. ], Copp GH, Moffatt L, Wesley KJ, 2007. There is intensive daytime use of littoral habitat, resting within dense vegetation (Copp et al., 2009). Maximum length is 500 cm (male), but common lengths are 300 cm, and weight 306 kg. 1998; Zaykov and Hubenova-Siderova, 1998; Prokés et al., 1999; Grozev et al., 2000; Bogut et al., 2002; Paschos et al., 2004; Kim et al., 2005; Dediu et al., 2010; Alp et al., 2011; Jamróz et al., 2008; Muscalu et al., 2010), and on food conversion of cultured S. glanis (particularly using meal pellets), e.g. Risk of establishment increases in warmer climates such as the Mediterranean as rapid growth and breeding are enhanced by warmer temperatures of 25-28ºC in contrast to likelihood of more sporadic establishment in Northern climates. Voracious invader or benign feline? - Contenimento della presenza di Silurus glanis nelle acque dell’Adda ricomprese nel territorio del Parco Adda Nord e, nel comtempo, contenimento di altre specie ittiche alloctone dannose per l’equilibrio delle specie autoctone (come il gardon, il rodeo amaro, il carassio). (2002) investigated the genetic structure of S. glanis across most of its natural distribution using 10 microsatellite loci. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. S. glanis cultivation has played a minor role in cyprinid pond farming. Most research on the environmental requirements of S. glanis has been focussed on introduced ranges in western Europe rather than northern habitats, as warmer water temperatures cause more serious ecological impacts, for example rapid growth (Boulêtreau et al. In: Management and Ecology of Lake and Reservoir Fisheries [ed. Non-native fishes and climate change: predicting species responses to warming temperatures in a temperate region. Aquaculture of this species is constrained by water temperatures <10ºC during winter months in some regions of Europe including France. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 14(2), 171-175. The risks to native species are through disease and parasite transmission, competition for benthic habitats and predation. Egg size is 3 mm and larvae length at hatching is 8.5 mm. River Thames, River Great Ouse, where its presence is yet to be proved (Copp et al., 2007). Age and growth of the European catfish (Silurus glanis) in a Turkish Reservoir and comparison with introduced populations. Fisheries for non-native species in England: angling or the environment? A potential beneficial ecological effect is that S. glanis can predate on signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus), which is an invasive species in Europe that is adversely effecting native crayfish populations (Carol et al., 2009; Copp et al., 2009). The different routes of introduction are pertinent regarding release of non-native fish, as some routes such as angling have a greater risk of unregulated transfer activities from fishermen in unsupervised lakes. Identification of non-native freshwater fishes established in Europe and assessment of their potential threats to the biological diversity. Il siluro (Silurus glanis Linnaeus, 1758) nelle acque del Lago di Massaciuccoli: un rischio per la biodiversità ... tipico delle aree umide del territorio nazionale (A.A. In rosso e blu, i territori originari; in arancione, le zone dove è stato introdotto. [Cefas Science Technical Report No. 59043).Occurs mainly in large lakes and rivers, though occasionally enters brackish water in the Baltic and Black Seas (Ref. 2010), predation and trophic impact (Czarnecki et al. GardaPost Gen 11, 2020. Fish and Fisheries. siluro, con una buona conoscenza del territorio. Introduction of S. glanis for aquaculture and enhancement of sport angling is common. They are a demersal species, find refuge in crevices and woody root habitats, and prefer slow flowing rivers and weedy covered, vegetated lakes. Voracious invader or benign feline? Comparative analysis of results of using different food rations in juvenile wels (Silurus glanis) culture. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 16(3), 398-405. http://agrojournal.org, Hamackova J, Szlaminska M, Kouril M, Vachta J, Stibranyiova I, 1997. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 11:203-212, Hilge V, 1989. In other locations, instead, it is forbidden to the fishermen taking it ashore to place it again in water. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. Average temp. The mitochondrial genome of the European catfish Silurus glanis (Siluriformes, Siluridae). S. glanis was introduced to the UK and western Europe in the nineteenth century. – Contenimento della presenza di Silurus glanis nelle acque dell’Adda ricomprese nel territorio del Parco Adda Nord e, nel comtempo, contenimento di altre specie ittiche alloctone dannose per l’equilibrio delle specie autoctone (come il gardon, il rodeo amaro, il carassio). However, Martino et al. There is a risk that wels catfish may impact on native fauna for a number of reasons. This can vary from two to ten days from the deposition, depending on the water temperature. Use of frozen zooplankton in the intense rearing of European catfish (Silurus glanis L.) larvae. A review of the environmental biology of European catfish Silurus glanis in its native and introduced ranges. The European catfish (Silurus glanis) can reach the 80 years with record size of 5 m and 300 kg. According to Naylor et al. Freshwater Biology, 55(5):1130-1141. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/123349915/HTMLSTART, Britton JR, Pegg J, 2007. Mareš, J., Wognarová, S., Spurný, P., 2003. Triantafyllidis et al. Activity peaks during the night, with nocturnal foraging motivated by hunger stimuli. (Black, Predator-fishing.co.uk 2005) Native to eastern Europe and western Asia it is now established in several countries to the west and south of its native range. The Silurus glanis lives in all the waterstreams with lmoderate currents and in artificial laks and canals, preferring not too deep seabeds, rich of rifts or of other types of shelters, where it spends the days in semi lethargic state. Journal of Fish Biology, 63:131-143. The eggs are large, about 1-3 mm in diameter (Copp et al., 2009). With the first darkness it rouses from this apathy and begins its meticolous researches. (La production de poissons en pisciculture en Roumanie.) 2009). > 0°C, wet all year, Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp. Lowestoft, UK: Cefas, 32 pp. There are reports of escapes from aquaculture and recreational fisheries, for example in France where it escaped into the River Doubs in about 1890 (Valadou, 2007). Moreover, the flesh is good even if, due to the pollution, before eating it would be better to contact the veterinary authorities. Their eyes are small and they rely on their barbels and olfactory cavities to sense their prey and environment rather than vision. Journal of Ichthyology, 18:457-468, Simoens I, Breine JJ, Verreycken H, Belpaire C, 2002. Some example maps demonstrate the extent of introductions. The anatomy and location of fins and body shape of S. glanis indicate that this fish is a demersal species, with a powerful pair of pectoral fins that is positioned behind the gills at the base of the ventral fins, small pelvic fins situated by the anal vent and an elongated anal fin that is over 50% of its body length. Fast growth is advantageous for non-natives in minimising predation by quickly exceeding gape size of native predators, and in increasing foraging opportunities (Hendry et al. It was first introduced to England in 1880, into enclosed recreational lakes of a private Bedfordshire manor estate at Woburn Abbey, for fishing. Towards the successful control of the invasive Pseudorasbora parva in the UK. Native populations extend from Germany to Eastern Europe including Poland and southern Sweden, and also from northern Iran and southern Turkey to the Baltic states and Russia, and to the Aral sea of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan (Copp et al., 2009). Territorio. There is one clear seasonal peak in spawning per year, between May and July. Larvae and juveniles are benthic feeders of invertebrate zooplankton such as Rotatoria, Copepoda and Cladocera. The species is an effective ambush predator of slower moving Cyprinid species (Copp et al., 2009). Life span is normally 15-30 years, with a maximum recorded age of 80 years (Kottelat and Freyhof, 2007). S. glanis is the largest-bodied European freshwater fish. The predicted increase of water temperatures of 2-3ºC by 2050 as a result of climate change is likely to amplify the risk of establishment and breeding success in the UK and other northern countries (Rahel and Olden, 2008; Britton et al., 2010). Native to eastern Europe and western Asia it is now established in several countries to the west and south of its native range. Ulikowski, D., Borkowska, I., Chybowski, L., 1998. Geographic Range Silurus glanis, sheatfish or wels catfish, is native to eastern Europe and Asia. The database includes records of species introduced or transferred from one country to another. Growth is an integrating variable of fish physiology and behaviour, and reduced growth can result from a variety of factors: food abundance, fish age, social hierarchy, change in water temperature, habitat and increased energy expenditures (Zaikov et al. It was introduced for angling and aquaculture in Spain, Italy and France. In their native range, catfish are under threat from anthropogenic changes including river modifications resulting in the loss of shallow spawning sites (Hamackova et al., 1997; Copp et al., 2005; Copp et al., 2007). (2002) report that in Lake Schulen in Flanders (Belgium), large wels catfish which had been illegally introduced by anglers had successfully reproduced. Inhabits large and medium size lowland rivers, backwaters and well vegetated lakes (Ref.